NOAA / Space Weather Prediction Center

Mass Ejection graphic

Space Weather Products
on the
National Weather Wire Service (NWWS)
Direct Broadcast Systems

The NOAA Weather Wire Service (NWWS) is a satellite broadcast system that distributes emergency weather conditions and forecasts to North America and parts of Central and South America. In 1996, the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) began distributing Space Weather products on NOAA Weather Wire, and currently issues 24 space weather alerts and 12 space weather products. These products are available through the NWWS or online from SWPC. SWPC's Space Weather Products are described below and Online Sources are linked from the table. General formatting conventions are described below.

SWPC provides on-line near-real-time space weather alerts, data, displays, and products. See Data and Products for the space weather information and services available from SWPC, or start at SWPC Home and explore our web site. Please read the NWS Disclaimer before using these products.

SWPC welcomes customer questions and feedback SWPC.Webmaster@noaa.gov


Space Weather Products Distributed on NWWS Systems
with links to samples, descriptions, and recent messages

  NWWS Code WMO ID Title Issue Time
and Frequency
Online Source
1 SWXxxxxxx
see table
see table Space Weather Alerts as condition warrant Recent and older Alerts
2
SWXCURIND
AXXX83
Current Space Weather Indices -- current day
hourly, beginning 0035 UTC
Last message
3
SWX3HRCON
FOUS04
3-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast (WWV)
every 3 hours beginning 0000 UTC

Last message
Archive
Description

4
SWXDAYIND
AXXX81
Daily Space Weather Indices -- previous day
every 6 hours beginning 0015 UTC
Last message
Last 75 messages
5
SWXDAYOBS
AXXX82
Summary of Space Weather Observations -- previous day
Daily after 0030 UTC
Last message
Last 75 messages
6
SWXDAYEVT
AXXX80
Space Weather Event Reports -- previous day
Daily after 0250 UTC
Last message
Last 75 messages
7
SWXDAYDSF
FXXX01
Daily Space Weather Summary and Forecast -- current day and next 3 days
Daily after 2200 UTC
Alternative, see "Forecast" Last message
Last 75 messages
8
SWXDAYPRE
FXXX04
3-day Space Weather Predictions
Daily after 2200 UTC
Last message
9
SWXWEKHIL
FXXX06
7-day Space Weather Highlights
Monday, by 1500 UTC
Last message
10
SWXWEKFOR
FXXX02
27-day Space Weather Forecast
Monday, by 1500 UTC
Last message
11
SWXWEKOUT
FXXX05
27-day Space Weather Outlook Table
Monday, by 1500 UTC
Last message
12
SWXADVOUT
NWXX04
Space Weather Advisory Outlook
Monday, by 1500 UTC
Last 4 weeks
13
SWXADVMSG
NWXX06

Space Weather Advisory Messages

General messages from SWPC

as needed
no archive
14
SWXDAYDIS
FXXX12

Space Weather Forecast Discussion

every 12 hours beginning 0030 UTC
no archive
15
SWXDAYTDF
FXXX10

Space Weather 3-day Forecast

every 12 hours beginning 0030 UTC
no archive

NWWS Codes - a 9 character code where the first 3 letters are SWX for Space Weather, the next 3 letters denote the type of product (WAR=warning) or frequency (DAY=daily), and the last 3 letters specify the type of message (IND=indices).

NWWS Station ID is KWNP for all SWPC Space Weather products.

UTC -- Coordinated Universal Time, same as Universal Time and Greenwich Mean Time.


1. Space Weather Alerts

SWPC issues Space Weather Alerts to advise customers of significant solar-geophysical events affecting systems working in or through the space environment. SWPC forecasters issue alerts on the occurrence, warnings on the forecast (during the next 72 hours), and summaries after the end for a variety of solar-geophysical phenomena. A description of SWPC's Space Weather Alerts, including recent alerts, data, and other displays is online.

All SWPC alerts are distribution through NWWS systems. See the Space Weather Alerts Table for alert names and NWWS codes.

Sample

Space Weather Message Code: ALTK06
Serial Number: 259
Issue Time: 2007 Nov 20 1421 UTC

ALERT: Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2007 Nov 20 1421 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC
Station: Boulder
Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

# Issued by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Recent messages, data, and help at http://swpc.noaa.gov/alerts/
# Send questions to SWPC.Webmaster@noaa.gov

2. Current Space Weather Indices
SWXCURIND

Current Space Weather Indices, issued hourly at 35 minutes past the hour, provides a running summary of key solar-geophysical indices for the current day, allowing customers to routinely appraise recent levels of solar-geophysical activity. The SWPC designated GOES Primary satellite is used.

Sample

:Product: Current Space Weather Indices curind.txt
:Issued: 2008 Dec 04 1834 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#                       Current Space Weather Indices
:Solar_Radio_Flux: 2008 Dec 04
#      Learmonth  San Vito   Sag Hill  Penticton  Penticton  Palehua  Penticton
#       0400       1100       1600       1700       2000       2200       2300
  245     12         12         -1         -1         -1         -1         -1
  410     28         25         -1         -1         -1         -1         -1
  610     35         -1         -1         -1         -1         -1         -1
 1415     55         48         55         -1         -1         -1         -1
 2695     70         59         63         -1         -1         -1         -1
 2800     -1         -1         -1         -1         -1         -1         -1
 4995    133         81        127         -1         -1         -1         -1
 8800    226        111        211         -1         -1         -1         -1
15400     -1        364        452         -1         -1         -1         -1
#
#
:Energetic_Particle_Flux: 2008 Dec 04 1825 UT
#
# Current Readings
#      GOES-11 Proton Flux      GOES-11 Electron Flux  GOES10  GOES11   Neutron
# ----- Protons/cm2-s-sr -----  -Electrons/cm2-s-sr -  X-ray  Location  Monitor
#   >1 MeV   >10 MeV  >100 MeV   >0.6 MeV     >2 MeV   flux     West    cts/min
  9.66e+00  2.81e-01  9.67e-02   2.07e+04   1.33e-01   A0.0     136        -1
#
#
:Geomagnetic_Values: 2008 Dec 04
#
#          Middle Latitude                      Estimated
#------------- Boulder -------------     ------ Planetary ------
#Running A   03-06-09-12-15-18-21-24     03-06-09-12-15-18-21-24
     7        0  3  2  3  2  2 -1 -1      1  3  1  2  2  1 -1 -1


Description

Solar_Radio_Flux

The Solar Radio Flux list contains Central Meridian Passage (local noon) flux values measured at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Penticton, Canada and the US Air Force Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN) sites. The RSTN sites are Learmonth, Australia; San Vito, Italy; Sagamore Hill, Massachusetts; and Palehua, Hawaii. The times listed below the Observatory name is the approximate UTC time of measurement. Each RSTN sites measures the solar radio flux within one hour of their local noon. Penticton records values 3 times a day with the 2000 UTC value being closest to local noon.

The output is a table with one row for each frequency and one column for each site. The flux is expressed in units of 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1. Values from Penticton are not corrected for the variable Sun-Earth distance resulting from the eccentric orbit of the Earth around the Sun. Values range from 1 to 999. Missing values are shown as -1. Values are for the current day up until the time of the message.

Energetic_Particle_Flux

The Energetic Particle Flux list contains current readings of the 5-minute averaged integral proton flux (protons cm-2 s-1 sr-1) and integral electron flux (electrons cm-2 s-1 SR-1) as measured by the SWPC primary GOES spacecraft for the following energy levels: for protons, >1, >10, and >100 MeV; for electrons, >0.6 and >2 MeV. The current 1-minute averaged value of the GOES x-ray flux reading is listed. The location of the spacecraft is provided in degrees West longitude. Neutron monitor readings measured by the sensor located in Thule, Greenland, are expressed as counts per minute (corrected for barometric pressure).

Geomagnetic_Values

The Geomagnetic indices are the running 24-hour A-index, recomputed every 3 hours, and the 3-hourly K-indices, up to the time of the message (listed under 03 is the value calculated from values measured from 0000 to 0300 UTC), from the Boulder (middle latitude) US Geological Survey (USGS) station monitoring Earth's magnetic field and Estimated Planetary value calculated by the USAF. The estimated planetary K-indices are derived in real time from a network of western hemisphere ground-based magnetometers. K-indices range from 0 (very quiet) to 9 (extremely disturbed). An A-index of 30 or greater indicates local geomagnetic storm conditions. K-indices of 5 or greater are indicative of storm conditions. Missing values are shown as -1.


3. 3-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast
SWX3HRCON

The 3-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast is issued every 3 hours at about 5 minutes past the hour. This is a repeat of the SWPC Geophysical Alert message available on other SWPC systems and on WWV and WWVH. The messages contains recent solar and geophysical indices, plus a summary of recent significant activity and a forecast of activity in the next 24 hours.

Sample

:Product: 3-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast
:Issued: 2007 Nov 23 1505 UTC

# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#          3-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast
#
Solar-terrestrial indices for 22 November follow.
Solar flux 70 and mid-latitude A-index 10.
The mid-latitude K-index at 1500 UTC on 23 November was 2 (18 nT).

No space weather storms were observed for the past 24 hours.

No space weather storms are predicted for the next 24 hours.

Description -- see WWV -- Geophysical Alert Message


4. Daily Space Weather Indices
SWXDAYIND

Daily Space Weather Indices, issued every 6 hours beginning at 0015 UTC, contains key solar-geophysical indices from the previous UTC day. Note, some values are not available at the time of the initial messages. The SWPC designated GOES Primary satellite is used.

Sample

:Product: Daily Space Weather Indices dayind.txt
:Issued: 2008 Dec 04 1815 UT
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#                       Daily Space Weather Indices
#
#
:Solar_Indices: 2008 Dec 03
# SWO Sunspot  Penticton Radio   90-day Radio   GOES-10 X-ray   Stanford Solar
#   Number       Flux 10.7cm     Flux 10.7cm     Bkgd Flux       Mean Field
     0               69               68           A0.0             -999
#
:Solar_Region_Data: 2008 Dec 03
#                                                 --------- Flares ---------
# Sunspot Area       New         Spotted           X-ray          Optical
# 10E-6 Hemis.     Regions        Region           C  M  X       S  1  2  3  4
      0               0              0             0  0  0       0  0  0  0  0
#
:Solar_Radio_Flux: 2008 Dec 03
#      Learmonth  San Vito   Sag Hill  Penticton  Penticton  Palehua  Penticton
#        0400       1100       1600       1700       2000       2200       2300
  245     11         11         12         -1         -1         11         -1
  410     28         24         21         -1         -1         24         -1
  610     34         -1         39         -1         -1         35         -1
 1415     56         50         54         -1         -1         53         -1
 2695     69         61         62         -1         -1         64         -1
 2800     -1         -1         -1         71         69         -1         68
 4995    133         87        124         -1         -1        114         -1
 8800    225        121        212         -1         -1        206         -1
15400     -1        362        454         -1         -1        475         -1
#
:Particle_Data: 2008 Dec 03
#      GOES-11 Proton Flux         GOES-11 Electron Flux    GOES11     Neutron
# ---- Protons/cm2-day-sr ----   - Electrons/cm2-da-sr -   Location    Monitor
#  ->1 MeV   >10 MeV  >100 MeV     >0.6 MeV     >2 MeV       West    % of bkgd
  1.47e+06  1.93e+04  4.38e+03     5.70e+09   3.31E+06       136         99.9
#
:Geomagnetic_Indices: 2008 Dec 03
#      Middle Latitude                        Middle Latitude
# ----- Fredericksburg -----            --------- Boulder ---------
# A        K-indices                    A        K-indices
#     03-06-09-12-15-18-21-24               03-06-09-12-15-18-21-24
  4    1  1  1  1  1  1  1  2           5    1  1  1  1  1  3  2  1  
#        High Latitude                           Estimated
# --------- College ---------           -------- Planetary --------
# A       K-indices                     A        K-indices
#     03-06-09-12-15-18-21-24               03-06-09-12-15-18-21-24
  4    0  0  0  0  2  3  1  1           4    0  1  1  0  1  2  1  2  

Description

Solar_Indices

SWO Sunspot Number: The sunspot number for the indicated date is computed according to the Wolf Sunspot Number equation, R=k (10g+s), where g is the number of visible sunspot groups (or regions), s is the total number of individual spots in all the groups, and k is a variable scaling factor (usually <=1) that indicates the combined effects of observing conditions, telescope, and bias of the solar observers. A sunspot number of zero indicates there were no visible sunspots on that date; a blank indicates that no observations were taken. The sunspot region information used to compute the daily sunspot number incorporates reports from at least one to as many as six observatories. These reports are used to form a composite picture of each individual region, including sunspot number, area and classification, taking into account such factors as the time of observation and the quality of seeing. This composite information is the daily average (evaluated by seeing conditions) obtained from the reporting observatories and may not represent the latest data. It is reported daily in the Solar Region Summary.

Penticton and 90-Day Radio Flux: The 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) full Sun radio flux reported by the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory at Penticton, B.C., Canada on the date indicated. Measurements are made at approximately 2000UTC. Values are in solar flux units of 10-22Wm-2Hz-1 and are not corrected for the variable Sun-Earth distance resulting from the eccentric orbit of the Earth around the Sun. The 90-day radio flux is the mean value for the last 90 days.

X-ray Bkgd Flux: The daily GOES x-ray background flux from SWPC's primary GOES satellite. Daily GOES X-ray Background Flux algorithm:

Stanford Solar Mean Field: SWPC stopped distributing the Stanford Solar Mean Field values in October 2000 . This field is now always -999. The Stanford Solar Mean Field represents the mean value of the solar magnetic field expressed in NT, where negative polarity (oriented toward the Sun) or positive (oriented away from the Sun). These measurements continue to be taken at Stanford and are available directly at the Wilcox Solar Observatory.

Solar_Region_Data

Sunspot Area: Sum of the corrected area of all observed sunspots, in units of millionths of the solar hemisphere.
New Regions
: the number of new sunspot regions numbered during the UTC day.
Spotted Regions: the number of sunspot regions observed during the UTC day.
Flares: The total number of x-ray and optical and flares observed during the UTC day.

Solar_Radio_Flux

The Solar Radio Flux list contains Central Meridian Passage (local noon) flux values from the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Penticton, Canada and the US Air Force Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN) sites. The RSTN sites are Learmonth, Australia; San Vito, Italy; Sagamore Hill, Mass.; And Palehua, Hawaii. Each RSTN site measures the solar radio flux within one hour of their local noon. Penticton records values 3 times a day with the 2000 UTC value being closest to local noon. The output is a table with one row for each frequency and one column for each site. The value is the flux, missing values are shown as -1. Values range from 1 to 999.

Particle_Data

The Particle Data list contains daily 5-minute averaged integral proton flux (protons cm-2 s-1 SR-1) and integral electron flux (electrons cm-2 s-1 SR-1) as measured by SWPC's primary GOES satellite for the following energy levels: for protons, >1, >10, and >100 MeV; for electrons, >0.6 and >2 MeV. The location of the spacecraft is given in degrees longitude. Neutron monitor readings are measured by a sensor located in Thule, Greenland and are expressed as percent of background. Missing proton and electron values are shown as -1.0e+05. Missing neutron monitor data are shown as -999.9.

Geomagnetic_Indices

Fredericksburg, Boulder, College, and Estimated Planetary A and K Indices: The daily 24-hour A index and eight 3-hourly K indices from the Fredericksburg and Boulder (middle-latitude), and College (high-latitude) USGS stations monitoring Earth's magnetic field. The estimated planetary 24 hour A index and eight 3-hourly K indices are derived in real time from a network of western hemisphere ground-based magnetometers. K indices range from 0 (very quiet) to 9 (extremely disturbed). A indices range from 0 (very quiet) to 400 (extremely disturbed). An A index of 30 or greater indicates geomagnetic storm conditions.


5. Summary of Space Weather Observations
SWXDAYOBS

The Summary of Space Weather Observations, issued daily at 0030 UTC, is a summary of the previous day's solar region observations.

Sample

:Product: Summary of Space Weather Observations dayobs.txt
:Issued: 2007 Nov 18 0033 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#             Summary of Space Weather Observations
#
:Solar_Region_Summary: 2007 Nov 17
# Region   Location         Sunspot Characteristics
#           Helio                      Spot  Spot  Mag.
# Num   Lat.,CMD  Long.  Area  Extent  class count class
 0974    N13W21    201     40     3     DAO    3     BG

Description

Solar_Region_Summary

Region: The 4-digit region number assigned by SWPC to each sunspot group during its disk passage. Note: the region number is the last 4 digits of the official region number. Therefore when it reaches 9999 it will roll over to 0000, e.g. 9998, 9999, 0000, 0001.

Location Helio: Location, in heliographic degrees latitude and degrees east or west from central meridian, rotated to 2400 UTC.
Lat: Heliographic degrees latitude of the center of the sunspot group.
CMD Long: Carrington longitude of the center of the group.

Sunspot Characteristics:

Note: The characteristics for each active region are compiled from approximately half a dozen observatories. The sunspot counts are typically higher than those reported in non-real time by the Sunspot Index Data Center (SIDC), Brussels, Belgium, and the American Association of Variable Star Observers.


6. Space Weather Event Reports
SWXDAYEVT

Space Weather Event Reports, issued daily after 0250 UTC, contain the energetic space weather events observed the previous day. More extensive solar events lists are available online.

Sample:

:Product: Space Weather Event Reports dayevt.txt
:Issued: 2002 Feb 07 0250 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#             Space Weather Event Reports
#
:Energetic_Solar_Events: 2002 Feb 06
#Begin Max  End   Rgn   Loc  Xray  Op 245MHz 10cm   Sweep
 0111 0111 0111                       120                           
 0433 0440 0443  9816 S17W48 C8.2  Sf 520    25     II  
 0451 0509 0513  9816 S17W50 C2.92 SF 180       
 1126 1132 1141              M1.4            88
 1522 1528 1529                       600   
 1704 1707 1711  9816 S11W54 C1.7  SF 320 
 1719 1719 1719                       130 
 2010 2014 2017  9815 N12E31 C5.3  SF 120
 

Description

Energetic_Solar_Events

A summary of significant solar events including start, maximum, and end times, region number and location, x-ray and optical classification of flares and significant radio emission. All available data for an event are included in this section if one or more of the following thresholds are reached:


7. Daily Space Weather Summary and Forecast
SWXDAYDSF

The Daily Space Weather Summary and Forecast, issued daily after 2200 UTC, provides a summary and 3-day forecast of solar-geophysical conditions including solar flare, geomagnetic field, and satellite altitude proton activity.

Sample:

:Product: Daily Space Weather Summary and Forcast daydsf.txt
:Issued: 2007 Nov 22 2203 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#            Daily Space Weather Summary and Forecast.
#
:Solar_Analysis:
Analysis of Solar Active Regions and Activity from  21/2100Z
to 22/2100Z:  Solar activity was very low.
#
:Solar_Forecast:
Solar Activity Forecast:  Solar activity is expected to be very
low.
#
:Geophysical_Activity:
Geophysical Activity Summary 21/2100Z to 22/2100Z:
The geomagnetic field was quiet to active.  The greater than 2 MeV
electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was at high levels.
#
:Geophysical_Forecast:
Geophysical Activity Forecast:  The geomagnetic field is
expected to be quiet to unsettled for 23-25 November.

Description

Solar_Analysis

A summary of significant solar features and activity observed during the reporting period, including characteristics of sunspot groups, magnetic fields, flares, radio bursts, and active filaments associated with significant solar regions. Significant solar limb and disk features, including major filament disappearances, are also included.

Solar_Activity_Forecast

A summary of the potential for solar activity during the next 3 days.

Geophysical_Activity

A description of significant geophysical activity including geomagnetic activity and proton events, polar cap absorption (PCA) events, and satellite-level particle enhancements observed during the reporting period.

Geophysical_Activity_Forecast

A forecast of the level of geophysical activity during the next 3 days.


8. 3-day Space Weather Predictions
SWXDAYPRE

3-day Space Weather Predictions, issued daily after 2200 UTC, contains a 3-day forecast of solar-geophysical activity including planetary, middle- and high-latitude geomagnetic field conditions; sunspot region-specific solar flare probabilities; and general ionospheric conditions (including polar cap absorption).

Sample:

:Product: 3-day Space Weather Predictions daypre.txt
:Issued: 2007 Nov 22 2203 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#             3-day Space Weather Predictions
#
:Prediction_dates:   2007 Nov 23   2007 Nov 24   2007 Nov 25
:Geomagnetic_A_indices:
A_Fredericksburg          5             5            10
A_Planetary               5             8            15
#
# Predicted 3-hour Middle latitude k-indices
:Pred_Mid_k:
Mid/00-03UT               2             2             3
Mid/03-06UT               2             2             3
Mid/06-09UT               2             2             3
Mid/09-12UT               1             1             2
Mid/12-15UT               2             2             2
Mid/15-18UT               1             1             2
Mid/18-21UT               1             1             2
Mid/21-00UT               1             1             1
#
# Predicted 3-hour High latitude k-indices:
:Pred_High_k:
High/00-03UT              1             1             4
High/03-06UT              1             2             4
High/06-09UT              1             2             3
High/09-12UT              2             3             3
High/12-15UT              2             3             2
High/15-18UT              2             2             3
High/18-21UT              1             2             2
High/21-00UT              1             1             2
#
# Probability of Geomagnetic conditions at Middle Latitude
:Prob_Mid:
Mid/Active               10            10            15
Mid/Minor_Storm           1             1             5
Mid/Major-Severe_Storm    1             1             1
#
# Probability of Geomagnetic conditions at High Latitudes
:Prob_High:
High/Active              10            15            20
High/Minor_Storm          1             5            10
High/Major-Severe_Storm   1             1             5
#
# Polar Cap Absorption Forecast
:Polar_cap:
                      green
#
# Solar
:10cm_flux:
                         70            70            70
#
:Whole_Disk_Flare_Prob:
Class_M                   1             1             1
Class_X                   1             1             1
Proton                    1             1             1
#
# Region Flare Probabilities for 2007 Nov 23
# Region     Class C      M             X             P
:Reg_Prob: 2007 Nov 22

Description

Geomagnetic_A_Indices

Predicted daily geomagnetic A-index for Fredericksburg, VA, and daily planetary A-index, predicted for the next 3 days.

Pred_Mid_k, Pred_Hi_k, Prob_Mid, Prob_High

Probability forecast of geomagnetic conditions for middle and high latitudes-the values indicate the probability for at least one 3-hour K index, at the indicated level, for each of the next 3 days.

Active: K = 4.
Minor storm: K = 5.
Major or Severe storm: K > 6.

Polar_cap:

PCAF: A 24-hour forecast of a polar cap absorption (PCA) event. The PCA forecasts are color coded:

SOLAR 10cm_flux

Predicted daily values of the 10.7 cm flux.

Whole_Disk_Flare_Prob

Class M and class X: Probability forecast of the occurrence of one or more class-M or class-X x-ray events for each of the next 3 days. Proton flare: Probability forecast of a significant proton event at satellite altitudes (at least 10 pfu at energies greater than 10 MeV) for each of the next 3 days.

Region_Prob

Class C, M, and X flare: Probability forecast of the occurrence of one or more x-ray flares for the day listed. Proton flare: Probability forecast of a flare that will cause a significant proton event at satellite altitudes (at least 10 pfu at energies greater than 10 MeV).


9. 7-day Space Weather Highlights
SWXWEKHI

The 7-day Space Weather Highlights, issued Mondays by 1500 UTC, is a plain-language summary of solar and geophysical activity highlights for the previous week. A complete summary of weekly activity and 27-day forecasts since 1997, plus an extensive descriptive, are online as The Weekly.

Sample:

:Product: 7-day Space Weather Highlights
:Issued: 2007 Nov 20 2323 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#                7-day Space Weather Highlights
#
Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
12 - 18 November 2007

Solar activity was very low.  Only minor flare activity was observed.
New Region 974 (N13, L=201, class/area, Dao/040 on 17 November)
formed on the disk on the 16th, but decayed to plage by 18 November.

No proton events were observed at geosynchronous orbit.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was at
normal levels throughout the period.

The geomagnetic field was quiet during most of the period. However,
ACE solar wind measurements indicated a recurrent co-rotating
interaction region (CIR) and coronal hole wind stream commenced on
13 November. Interplanetary Magnetic Field changes associated with
the CIR included increased Bt (peak 15.4 nT at 13/0156 UTC) and
variable Bz (range +9.3 nT to -11.8 nT). Velocities gradually
increased to a peak of about 690 km/sec at 14/1051 UTC, then
gradually decreased during the remainder of the period. ACE proton
densities associated with the CIR increased to a peak of 23.1 p/cc
at 13/0224 UTC.

Description

Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity:

A summary of solar activity, solar wind measurements, particle enhancements, and geomagnetic activity observed during the previous Monday through Sunday. In the solar activity summary, solar active regions are identified by the region number, heliographic latitude and Carrington longitude, and modified Zurich sunspot classification/sunspot area in millionths of the solar hemisphere on the date of maximum sunspot area; for example, Region 4421 (N16, L=115, class/area Dki/710 on 27 February). Significant solar activity is discussed in terms of the characteristics of the region of origin, x-ray flare class (C, M, or X), optical classification (Sn, 1b, etc.), radio emission, associated energetic particle emission, and geophysical effects. Solar wind measurements including velocity, density, interplanetary magnetic field orientation/ strength, and solar sector structure are discussed. The characteristics of near-Earth energetic particle events as detected by satellites and ground-based sensors are discussed. Geomagnetic activity, including storms and disturbances is described. Whenever feasible, solar and geomagnetic activity is summarized using standard terms.

Terms used to describe solar activity: See the explanation of category and type of x-ray flare under 3. Three-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast

The letter classification of solar flares used in these definitions is depicted in the table below. This classification ranks solar activity by its peak x-ray intensity in the 0.1 - 0.8 nm band as measured by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). This x-ray classification offers at least two distinct advantages compared with the standard optical classifications: it gives a better measure of the geophysical significance of a solar event, and it provides an objective means of classifying geophysically significant activity regardless of its location on the solar disk or near the solar limb, or whether it was observed at all.

GOES X-ray Classification

Classification Peak Flux Range (W m-2)

A < 10-7
B 10-7 < 10-6
C 10-6 < 10-5
M 10-5 < 10-4
X > 10-4

X-rays are measured in the range of 0.1 - 0.8 NM The letter designates the order of magnitude of the peak value. The number following the letter is the multiplicative factor. For example, a C3.2 event indicates an x-ray event burst with 3.2x10-6 W m-2 peak flux. Since x-ray bursts are observed as a full-Sun value, bursts below the x-ray background levels are not discernible. The background drops to class A level during solar minimum; only bursts that exceed B1.0 are classified as x-ray events. During solar maximum the background is often at the class M levels, and therefore class A, B, or C x-ray bursts cannot be seen. Data are from the NOAA GOES satellites, monitored in real time in Boulder.

Terms used to describe geomagnetic activity:

The following adjectives are used to describe geomagnetic activity. "A" refers to the 24-hour A index observed at a geomagnetic observatory such as Fredericksburg, VA (middle latitude), and College, AK (high latitude). "K" refers to a 3-hour index derived from the most disturbed horizontal component of the local geomagnetic field. K is a quasi-logarithmic index ranging from 0 (very quiet) to 9 (highly disturbed).
See the explanation of category, A-index range, and typical values under Three-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast

Storms can begin either suddenly or gradually. If the beginning is gradual, the reported begin time is the first hour of the period when storm level conditions occurred. Sudden storm commencements (SSCs) are distinctive, abrupt global changes in the magnetic field intensity, followed by storm-level conditions within approximately 24 hours. Sudden impulses (SIs) are also abrupt global changes in the magnetic field, but subsequent activity does not reach storm levels. The times of SIs and SSCs are given to the nearest minute; for gradual commencements, to the nearest hour. An SI becomes an SSC if it is followed by a geomagnetic storm.


10. 27-day Space Weather Forecast
SWXWEKFOR

The 27-day Space Weather Forecast, issued Mondays by 1500 UTC, is a plain-language forecast of solar-geophysical activity. A complete summary of weekly activity and 27-day forecasts since 1997, plus an extensive descriptive, are online as The Weekly.

Sample:

:Product: 27-day Space Weather Forecast
:Issued: 2007 Nov 20 2323 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#               27-day Space Weather Forecast
#
Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
21 November - 17 December 2007

Solar activity is expected to be very low.

No proton events are expected at geosynchronous orbit.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit is
expected to reach high levels during 21 November - 01 December and
again on 16 December.

Activity is expected to be at unsettled to minor storm levels during
21 - 22 November as a recurrent coronal hole high-speed stream
disturbs the field. Activity is expected to decrease to quiet to
unsettled levels during 23 - 26 November as coronal hole effects
subside. Activity is expected to decrease to mostly quiet levels for
the balance of the period.

Explanation

Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity:

A plain-language forecast of solar activity for one solar cycle (27 days), particle enhancements, and geomagnetic activity. In the forecast, solar active regions are identified by the region number, heliographic latitude and Carrington longitude, and modified Zurich sunspot classification/sunspot area in millionths of the solar hemisphere on the date of maximum sunspot area; for example, Region 4421 (N16, L=115, class/area Dki/710 on 27 February). Forecast solar activity is discussed in terms of the x-ray flare class (C, M, or X). Possible energetic particle enhancements (electrons at >2 Mev and protons at >10 and >100 MeV) and geomagnetic activity, including the possibility of storms and disturbances, are described. Whenever feasible, solar and geomagnetic activity is summarized using standard terms.

Terms used to describe solar activity, x-ray classification, and geomagnetic activity are listed under the previous product explanation (9. Seven-Day Space Weather Highlights)


11. 27-day Space Weather Outlook Table
SWXWEKOUT

The 27-day Space Weather Outlook Table , issued Mondays by 1500 UTC, a numerical forecast of three key solar-geophysical indices; 10.7 cm solar radio flux, planetary A index, and largest daily K values. A complete summary of weekly activity and 27-day forecasts since 1997, plus an extensive descriptive, are online as The Weekly.

Sample:

:Product: 27-day Space Weather Outlook Table 27DO.txt
:Issued: 2007 Nov 20 2323 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#      27-day Space Weather Outlook Table
#                Issued 2007 Nov 20
#
#   UTC      Radio Flux   Planetary   Largest
#  Date       10.7 cm      A Index    Kp Index
2007 Nov 21      70          20          5
2007 Nov 22      70          15          4
2007 Nov 23      69          10          3
2007 Nov 24      68           8          3
2007 Nov 25      67          15          4
2007 Nov 26      67          10          3
2007 Nov 27      67           5          2
2007 Nov 28      67           5          2
2007 Nov 29      67           5          2
2007 Nov 30      67           5          2
2007 Dec 01      67           5          2
2007 Dec 02      67           5          2
2007 Dec 03      68           5          2
2007 Dec 04      68           5          2
2007 Dec 05      69           5          2
2007 Dec 06      69           5          2
2007 Dec 07      69           5          2
2007 Dec 08      70           5          2
2007 Dec 09      70           5          2
2007 Dec 10      70           5          2
2007 Dec 11      70          10          3
2007 Dec 12      70          10          3
2007 Dec 13      70          10          3
2007 Dec 14      70           5          2
2007 Dec 15      70           5          2
2007 Dec 16      70           5          2
2007 Dec 17      70          10          3

Explanation

Radio Flux 10.7 cm: Predicted 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) full-Sun background flux. Values are in solar flux units of 10-22 Wm-2Hz-1 and are not corrected for the variable Sun-Earth distance resulting from the eccentric orbit of the Earth around the Sun.

Planetary A Index: Predicted daily planetary A index. The A index is an index of geomagnetic activity derived from 3-hourly K-indices. A indices range from 0 (very quiet) to 400 (extremely disturbed). A forecast A index of 30 indicates global geomagnetic storm conditions are expected.

Largest Kp Index: Largest daily planetary K index (Kp) expected for the day indicated. The Kp index is an estimated 3-hourly planetary geomagnetic index of activity derived in real time from a network of western hemisphere ground-based magnetometers. Kp indices range from 0 (very quiet) to 9 (extremely disturbed).


12. Space Weather Advisory Outlook
SWXADVOUT

Space Weather Advisory Outlook, issued every Monday, provide general descriptions of conditions during the past week and an outlook for the next 7 days.

Sample:

Official Space Weather Advisory issued by NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
Boulder, Colorado, USA

SPACE WEATHER ADVISORY OUTLOOK #07- 48
2007 November 20 at 12:52 p.m. MST (2007 November 20 1952 UTC)

**** SPACE WEATHER OUTLOOK ****

Summary For November 12-18
No space weather storms were detected.

Outlook For November 21-27
Category G1 (minor) geomagnetic storms are possible on 21 November due
to high-speed winds from a coronal hole on the Sun.

Current space weather conditions at http://swpc.noaa.gov/SWN/, 
http://swpc.noaa.gov/today.html and  http://swpc.noaa.gov/alerts/ 

Data used to provide space weather services are contributed by NOAA, 
USAF, NASA, NSF, USGS, the International Space Weather Prediction Services 
and other observatories, universities, and institutions. For more 
information, including email services, see SWPC's Space Weather 
Advisories Web site http://swpc.noaa.gov/advisories or (303) 497-5127.

13. Space Weather Advisory Messages from SWPC
SWXADVMSG

The SWXADVMSG message contains changes, additions, and other information of use to NWWS space weather customers. SWPC urges NWWS space weather customers to subscribe to this message.


14. Space Weather Forecast Discussion
SWXDAYDIS

A Space Weather Forecast Discussion bulletin, issued twice daily at 0030 UTC and 1230 UTC and updated out-of-cycle as conditions warrant, detailing recently observed space weather data, model guidance, and forecaster rationale and tailored toward the sophisticated user and detailed scientific perspective.

Sample:

:Product: forecast_discussion.txt
:Issued: 2012 Dec 12 1235 UTC
# Prepared by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
#
Solar Activity

Solar activity has been at low levels for the past 24 hours. The largest
flare of the period was a C5/Sf from Region 1629 (N11W14) at 12/0727
UTC.  Region 1629 has remained stable but has shown slight flux
emergence in the leading spots.  Region 1630 (N20W27) was responsible
for a few B-class flares early in the period but has been quiet since
12/0011 UTC.  This region showed signs of decay in its intermediate
spots with slight growth in both the leader and follower.  New Region
1631 (N20E02) was numbered overnight and has been categorized as a
Bxo/beta spot group.  LASCO C2 imagery has shown multiple back sided
coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the past 24 hours however none
appear to be Earth-directed.

Solar activity is expected to be at very low levels with a chance for
C-class flares for the next three days (13-15 Dec).


Energetic Particles

The greater than 10 MeV proton flux at geosynchronous orbit has been at
background levels.  The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at
geosynchronous orbit has also been at background levels.

Proton and electron fluxes are expected to remain at background levels
for the next three days (13-15 Dec).


Solar Wind

Solar wind velocity, as measured by the ACE spacecraft, started the
period at approximately 300 km/s and has decreased to approximately 275
km/s at the close of the period.  The Total IMF reached a high of 5 nT. 
The Bz component hit -5 nT.  At approximately 12/0700 UTC the phi angle
went negative but reverted back to a positive sector two hours later.
  
On day one (13 Dec), a solar sector boundary (SSB) is expected to
precede the arrival of a weak negative polarity coronal hole high speed
stream (CH HSS).  With the arrival of this CH HSS, elevated solar wind
speeds ranging from 350-450 are likely. On days two and three (14-15
Dec), a return to nominal solar wind conditions is expected.


Geospace

The geomagnetic field has been quiet.

The geomagnetic field is expected to be at quiet to unsettled levels on
day one (13 Dec), as a negative polarity coronal hole in the northern
solar hemisphere becomes geoeffective. A return to quiet levels is
expected on days two and three (14-15 Dec), as effects from the CH HSS
wane.


15. Space Weather 3-day Forecast
SWXDAYTDF

A 3-Day Space Weather Forecast product, issued twice daily at 0030 UTC and 1230 UTC and updated out-of-cycle as conditions warrant, to relay forecast information in formats consistent with existing NOAA Scale thresholds in succinct plain language.

Sample:

:Product: three_day_forecast.txt
:Issued: 2012 Dec 12 1235 UTC
# Prepared by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
#
A. NOAA Geomagnetic Activity Observation and Forecast

The greatest observed 3 hr Kp over the past 24 hours was 1 (below NOAA
Scale levels).
The greatest expected 3 hr Kp for Dec 12-Dec 14 2012 is 3 (below NOAA
Scale levels).

NOAA Kp index breakdown Dec 12-Dec 14 2012

            Dec 12     Dec 13     Dec 14
00-03UT        0          2          2     
03-06UT        0          1          2     
06-09UT        1          1          0     
09-12UT        0          1          1     
12-15UT        1          1          1     
15-18UT        1          1          1     
18-21UT        2          3          2     
21-00UT        2          3          2     

Rationale: Expecting predominately quiet conditions throughout the
forecast period. A chance for unsettled conditions exists late on 13 Dec
as a negative polarity coronal hole/high speed stream becomes
geoeffective.  No NOAA scale G1 or greater storms expected.

B. NOAA Solar Radiation Activity Observation and Forecast

Solar radiation, as observed by NOAA GOES-13 over the past 24 hours, was
below S-scale storm level thresholds.

Solar Radiation Storm Forecast for Dec 12-Dec 14 2012

              Dec 12  Dec 13  Dec 14
S1 or greater    1%      1%      1%

Rationale: No NOAA scale S1 or greater storms are expected.

C. NOAA Radio Blackout Activity and Forecast

No radio blackouts were observed over the past 24 hours.

Radio Blackout Forecast for Dec 12-Dec 14 2012

              Dec 12        Dec 13        Dec 14
R1-R2            1%            1%            1%
R3 or greater    1%            1%            1%

Rationale:  No NOAA scale R1 or greater storms are expected. 

Format of NWWS Space Weather Products

NWWS systems identify products with a NWWS Code, WMO ID and Station ID. The NWWS code and Station ID appear in the standard message header.

ZCZC SWX3HRCON
TTAA00 KWNP 231505

:Product: 3-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast
:Issued: 2007 Nov 23 1505 UTC

# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#          3-hourly Space Weather Conditions and Forecast
#
Solar-terrestrial indices for 22 November follow.
Solar flux 70 and mid-latitude A-index 10.
The mid-latitude K-index at 1500 UTC on 23 November was 2 (18 nT).

No space weather storms were observed for the past 24 hours.

No space weather storms are expected for the next 24 hours.

Format Conventions

The NWWS products present SWPC customers with data that are easy to read and contain sufficient supporting information to make the data usable. Formatting conventions are used to product products are human readable and can also be decoded with software. SWPC reserves the right to modify list formats as data or processing changes warrant.

Product headers contains the product name, date and time of issue, a credit line, contact information, and a Title. When using these products, or portions of the products, please credit SWPC.

:Product: Daily Space Weather Indices dayind.txt
:Issued: 2007 Nov 23 1215 UT
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
#
#                       Daily Space Weather Indices
#

Keyword lines begin with a colon (:) keyword colon (:). Some keywords are followed by a value, others mark the beginning of the text paragraph.

Column headers begin with a number sign (#) and contain names of stations, data headings, and units, spelled
out as completely as possible.

Data lines begin with a number or space.

:Solar_Indices: 2003 Apr 11
# SWO Sunspot  Penticton Radio   90-day Radio   GOES10 X-ray   Stanford Solar
#   Number       Flux 10.7cm     Flux 10.7cm     Bkgd Flux       Mean Field
   206              202              222           B9.5             -999


:Energetic_Solar_Events: 2003 Apr 11
#Begin Max End Rgn Loc Xray Op 245MHz 10cm Sweep
No Data.

Updated: Oct 5, 2012