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Space Weather Prediction Center

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Monday, June 27, 2016 18:29:20

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NOAA Scales mini

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Space Weather Conditions
24-Hour Observed Maximums
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Latest Observed
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R1-R2 --
R3-R5 --
S1 or greater --
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R1-R2 --
R3-R5 --
S1 or greater --
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R1-R2 --
R3-R5 --
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Current Space Weather Conditions
R1 (Minor) Radio Blackout Impacts
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HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication on sunlit side, occasional loss of radio contact.
Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals.
More about the NOAA Space Weather Scales

Space Weather Phenomena

Phenomena and their affects between the Sun and Earth.

About Space Weather Phenomena

Space Weather describes the variations in the space environment between the sun and Earth. In particular Space Weather describes the phenomena that impact systems and technologies in orbit and on Earth. Space weather can occur anywhere from the surface of the sun to the surface of Earth. As a space weather storm leaves the sun, it passes through the corona and into the solar wind. When it reaches Earth, it energizes Earth’s magnetosphere and accelerates electrons and protons down to Earth’s magnetic field lines where they collide with the atmosphere and ionosphere, particularly at high latitudes. Each component of space weather impacts a different technology. A description of some of the space weather impacts can be found at Space Weather Impacts.

Aurora
Aurora

The Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and Aurora Australis (Southern Lights) are the result of electrons colliding with the upper reaches of Earth’

Image depicting a Coronal Hole
Coronal Holes

Coronal holes appear as dark regions in the solar corona when observed in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray wavelengths.

 Coronal mass ejections
Coronal Mass Ejections

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are huge explosions of magnetic field and plasma from the Sun's corona.

Earth's magnetosphere

The magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding Earth where the dominant magnetic field is the magnetic field of Earth, rather than the magnet

F10.7 cm Radio Emissions
F10.7 cm Radio Emissions

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity.

Galactic Cosmic Rays
Galactic Cosmic Rays

Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) are the slowly varying, highly energetic background source of energetic particles that constantly bombard Earth.

Geomagnetic Storms
Geomagnetic Storms

Geomagnetic storms are fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field, caused by changes in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field.

Ionosphere

The Ionosphere, between 80 and ~600 km in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, is where solar radiation caused ionization creates a layer of electrons that can effect earth systems.

Plot of Ionospheric Scintillation
Ionospheric Scintillation

Ionospheric scintillation is the rapid modification of radio waves caused by small scale structures in the ionosphere.

Radiation Belts
Radiation Belts

Radiation belts are regions of enhanced populations of energetic electrons and protons surrounding the Earth in space.

Solar EUV Irradiance

Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) is solar radiation that covers the wavelengths 10 – 120 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Radio Blackout Image
Solar Flares (Radio Blackouts)

Solar flares are large outbursts of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun lasting from minutes to hours.

Solar Radiation Storm

Solar radiation storms occur when a large-scale magnetic eruption, often causing a

Solar Wind
Solar Wind

The solar wind continuously flows outward from the Sun and consists mainly of protons and electrons in a state known as a plasma.

Sunspots/Solar Cycle
Sunspots/Solar Cycle

Sunspots are dark regions on the Sun.

Total Electron Content
Total Electron Content

The Total Electron Content (TEC) is the total number of electrons present along a path between a radio transmitter and receiver.

SOHO/LASCO C3 Coronagraph Image of a bright dot moving across the field of view.
What's that bright spot in the Coronal Mass Ejections Image?

What are those bright spots that appear in the CME Image, people often ask.